Interpersonal communication and dating
The pairs who chatted in the presence of the cell phone reported lower relationship quality and less closeness.
Przybylski and Weinstein then followed up with another experiment in which they asked groups of participants to discuss either a casual topic or a meaningful one to see in which context the presence of a cell phone mattered the most.
The receiver then must interpret the message and provide feedback to the sender indicating that the message has been understood and appropriate action taken.
Interpersonal communication is the process of exchanging mutually understood symbols.
Within the booth, they found two chairs facing each other and, a few feet away, out of their direct line of vision, there was a desk that held a book and one other item.
Unbeknownst to the pair, the key difference in their interactions would be the second item on the desk.
For example, misunderstandings can occur when the sender does not possess a clear idea of the message he or she is trying to communicate, or has a clear idea but is not able to express it well.
Errors in the process can also occur when the receiver does not listen carefully, infers a different meaning than what was intended by the sender, or fails to provide feedback.